Posts Tagged ‘antipsychotic’

Are You Schizophrenic?

Sunday, May 14th, 2017

The May, 2017 Scientific American magazine has a lengthy article on schizophrenia, bemoaning the lack of scientific progress trying to find out what it is and how to treat it. The article says, “Gene studies were supposed to reveal the disorder’s roots. That didn’t happen.”

Most people consider that psychiatry’s main function is to treat patients with severe, even life–threatening mental conditions. The most pronounced is that condition first called dementia praecox by German psychiatrist Emil Kraepelin in the late 1800’s, and labeled “schizophrenia” by Swiss psychiatrist Eugen Bleuler in 1908.

Robert Whitaker, author of Mad in America, says the patients that Kraepelin diagnosed with dementia praecox were actually suffering from a virus, encephalitis lethargica (brain inflammation causing lethargy) which was unknown to doctors at the time.

Psychiatry never revisited Kraepelin’s material to see that schizophrenia was simply an undiagnosed and untreated physical problem. “Schizophrenia was a concept too vital to the profession’s claim of medical legitimacy. The physical symptoms of the disease were quietly dropped. What remained, as the foremost distinguishing features, were the mental symptoms: hallucinations, delusions, and bizarre thoughts,” says Whitaker. Psychiatrists remain committed to calling “schizophrenia” a mental disease despite, after a century of research, the complete absence of objective proof that it exists as a physical brain abnormality.

Today, psychiatry clings tenaciously to antipsychotics as the treatment for “schizophrenia,” despite their proven risks and studies which show that when patients stop taking these drugs, they improve.

Professor Thomas Szasz stated that “schizophrenia is defined so vaguely that, in actuality, it is a term often applied to almost any kind of behavior of which the speaker disapproves.” Lily Tomlin once said, “Why is it that when we talk to God we’re said to be praying, but when God talks to us we’re schizophrenic?”

The DSM-5 lists nine entries for various forms of this so-called disorder:
— “Schizophrenia”
— “Schizophreniform disorder”
— “Other specified schizophrenia spectrum and other psychotic disorder”
— “Unspecified schizophrenia spectrum and other psychotic disorder”
— “Schizoaffective disorder”
— “Schizoaffective disorder, Bipolar type”
— “Schizoaffective disorder, Depressive type”
— “Schizoid personality disorder”
— “Schizotypal personality disorder”

There is abundant evidence that real physical illness, with real pathology, can seriously affect an individual’s mental state and behavior. Psychiatry completely ignores this weight of scientific evidence, preferring to assign all blame to supposed “chemical imbalances in the brain” or genetic factors that have never been proven to exist, and limits all practice to brutal treatments that have done nothing but permanently damage the brain and the individual.

Since psychiatrists do not really know what schizophrenia is, and cannot predict nor cure the symptoms associated with these diagnoses, they instead have pushed to “pre-treat” people with antipsychotic drugs who might exhibit such symptoms sometime in the future; meanwhile spending untold millions of dollars and years of effort searching for genetic targets to create new drugs — instead of conducting valid clinical tests for known medical issues and treating those. If we include well-known medical issues, infections, hormonal issues, nutritional issues, fevers, environmental pains, and drug reactions, there must be over a hundred ways to go crazy and be diagnosed as schizophrenic — all of these treatable by standard medical protocols.

Click here for more information on schizophrenia and to download booklets on various medical causes for these symptoms.

Risky Business of Sleep Drugs

Saturday, March 5th, 2016

Risky Business of Sleep Drugs

After reading about the dangers of sleeping pills in the February 2016 edition of Consumer Reports magazine, we thought you might like to know something about that.

Some psychotropic drugs are prescribed as sleeping pills. Trazodone, an antidepressant, is often prescribed off label as a sleeping pill. Benzodiazepines such as Valium are also prescribed as sleeping pills. Other examples are Ambien (an anti-psychotic), Lunesta (an anti-anxiety drug), and Sonata (another anti-anxiety drug).

These have all the potential side effects we have come to associate with psychiatric drugs — including violence, suicide, addiction, and so on.

The latest sleeping pill fad, touted as “the new insomnia drug”, is Belsomra (generic “suvorexant”). It is classified as a “sedative-hypnotic” which means it is a central nervous system depressant; it alters brain chemistry by targeting a neurotransmitter called orexin.

Belsomra is manufactured by Merck, Sharpe & Dohme Corporation, and was approved by the FDA for insomnia in August of 2014.

Guess what? This drug carries the same warnings as other psychotropic drugs; it may cause memory loss, anxiety, confusion, agitation, hallucinations, depression, addiction, and thoughts of suicide — all this along with its own special side effects: inability to move or talk, sleep-walking, sleep-driving, and drowsiness lasting through the next day.

Here is what Consumer Reports has to say about Belsomra: “…people who took a 15- or 20-milligram dose of Belsomra every night for three months fell asleep just 6 minutes faster on average than those who took a placebo. And those on Belsomra slept on average only 16 minutes longer than people given a placebo. Such small improvements didn’t translate to people feeling more awake the next day, either. Instead, more people who took Belsomra reported that they felt drowsy the next day than those who took a placebo.”

“Because of the limited benefits and substantial risks of sleeping pills, Consumer Reports’ medical experts advise that sleep drugs should be used with great caution.”

“Merck spent $36 million on TV ads for its new drug Belsomra from Aug. 1 to Nov. 24, 2015, making it the second most advertised Rx drug in that time frame, according to iSpot.tv. The ads note that Belsomra is the first drug to target orexin, a chemical that plays a role in keeping people awake. But Belsomra doesn’t work much, or any, better than other sleep drugs. And because it’s new, little is known about its long-term safety.”

One take-away here is that even if a prescription drug is not advertised or prescribed for psychiatric reasons, if it messes with the brain’s neurotransmitters and has all the same side-effects as a psychiatric drug — well, you must get the picture by now.

The Consumer Reports article goes on to discuss non-drug sleep alternatives at some length; it is a good and helpful read.

When your doctor prescribes a drug, it is good practice to ask questions so you can give your full informed consent. These are some example questions you can ask:

1. What is the evidence for the diagnosis?
2. How does the treatment affect the body?
3. How does the treatment affect the mind?
4. What unwanted effects may occur?
5. Is it approved by the FDA for this condition?
6. What is known and not known about how safe it is and how well it works?
7. What are the alternatives, including the option of no treatment?
8. Does the doctor or the clinic have a financial interest in pushing the diagnosis or treatment?

Another Day Another Anti-depressant (Again)

Thursday, February 25th, 2016

Another Day Another Anti-depressant (Again)

On July 10, 2015, the U.S. Food and Drug Administration approved Rexulti (brexpiprazole, an atypical antipsychotic) tablets to treat adults with so-called schizophrenia and as an add-on treatment to an antidepressant medication to treat adults with so-called major depressive disorder. We are now starting to see the TV ads for this.

Rexulti is manufactured by Tokyo-based Otsuka Pharmaceutical Company Ltd. and its partner Lundbeck. It might be marketed as a replacement for Abilify (aripiprazole), although clinical trials for its usage to treat ADHD were discontinued, likely due to lack of efficacy. It is still a new drug that has not been tested over a long-term in a real-world population.

Rexulti and other such drugs have a Boxed Warning alerting health care professionals about an increased risk of death associated with the off-label use of these drugs to treat behavioral problems in older people with dementia-related psychosis.

The Boxed Warning also alerts health care professionals and patients to an increased risk of suicidal thinking and behavior in children, adolescents, and young adults taking antidepressants.

It has the same pattern of debilitating side effects as any other antidepressant or antipsychotic, including addiction and suicidal thoughts and actions. The most common side effects reported by participants taking Rexulti in clinical trials included weight gain and an inner sense of restlessness (akathisia), such as feeling the need to move.

Rexulti is being touted as producing less akathisia, restlessness, and insomnia than other drugs, but it is important to be skeptical of this marketing due to the fact that clinical trials reported all of these side effects. Like all antipsychotics, Rexulti will likely have severe withdrawal symptoms.

While the way Rexulti works is completely unknown, it affects serotonin, dopamine, and norepinephrine neurotransmitters in the brain; and this effect is called a “serotonin-dopamine activity modulator”. Messing with neurotransmitters in the brain without really understanding how they work is serious business; we don’t recommend it. In any case, we can guarantee that this chemical-in-the-brain-based hypothesis is bogus. Full Informed Consent should be your watchword.

Rexulti was studied in two 6-week clinical trials of 1,054 patients aged 18-65. The patients selected for the studies took another antidepressant for at least 8 weeks. Twenty patients discontinued participation due to adverse reactions.  The incidences of akathisia and restlessness, and some other side effects, increased with increases in dose.

We must recognize that the real problem is that psychiatrists and other medical practitioners fraudulently diagnose life’s problems as an “illness” and stigmatize unwanted behavior as  “diseases.” Psychiatry’s stigmatizing labels, programs and treatments are harmful junk science; their diagnoses of “mental disorders” are a hoax – unscientific, fraudulent and harmful. Taking such damaging drugs as Rexulti prevents people from finding out what is really wrong and fixing that.

CCHR believes that everyone has the right to full informed consent. FIND OUT! FIGHT BACK!

The Name Game, Latuda

Wednesday, June 24th, 2015

The Name Game, Latuda

Latuda, Latuda, bo-buda
Banana-fana-fo-fuda
Fee-fi-mo-muda
Latuda

One might as well be talking gibberish, since Latuda does not make any sense. Unless you consider that it makes a lot of cents.

We recently saw a commercial on TV for Latuda (generic name lurasidone HCL), lauding its use for bipolar depression.

It’s another psychiatric drug, originally promoted for the symptoms called schizophrenia, and lately for bipolar depression. It’s similar to risperidone or olanzapine, an atypical anti-psychotic drug that alters the levels of serotonin and dopamine in the brain. The chemical class is called “benzisothiazol derivative.”

It was developed by Sumitomo Dainippan Pharma and marketed in the U.S. by Sunovian Pharmaceuticals.

The Latuda manufacturer’s website has this to say about it, “It’s not known exactly how Latuda works, and the precise way antipsychotics work is also unknown.”

Manufacturer warnings include, “Increased mortality rate in elderly patients … and suicidal thoughts and behaviors.”

867 other drugs are known to interact with it.

The side effects are similar to all other antipsychotics, and could be increased in intensity if the user drinks grapefruit juice with it.

An average dose is estimated to cost about $5,000 per year.

It was not tested in published clinical trials lasting longer than 6 weeks; and one of its trials failed to show any improvement at all.

At this point, it is definitely looking more like banana-fana than anything else. One might as well eat some bananas instead, it would be a whole lot healthier and likely just as effective.

We’re making fun of the psych drug, not the symptoms. People certainly can have mental trauma for which they might need help. We’re just saying, the psych drug is not help; it is, rather, harm.

Psychiatry is a harmful pseudo-science; they know it, they admit it. Don’t swallow it.

Go here for more information. Find Out! Fight Back!

Huffington Post Admits Mental Disorders Are Not Medical Conditions

Sunday, June 14th, 2015

Huffington Post Admits Mental Disorders Are Not Medical Conditions

A leading psychiatrist featured in the Huffington Post just admitted what CCHR has said for decades — mental disorders are not medical conditions.

Allen Frances, professor emeritus at Duke University and chairman of the DSM-IV task force, had this to say, “Those of us who worked on DSM IV learned first-hand and painfully the limitations of the written word and how it can be tortured and twisted in damaging daily usage, especially when there is a profit to be had. … ‘Mental illness’ is terribly misleading because the ‘mental disorders’ we diagnose are no more than descriptions of what clinicians observe people do or say, not at all well established diseases.”

Kelly Patricia O’Meara further expounds on this:

“Slowly, ever so slowly, the scientific community finally is acknowledging what the Citizens Commission on Human Rights (CCHR), a mental health watchdog, has been exposing since 1969—that psychiatric disorders are not verifiable medical conditions, that the diagnosis is based solely on a checklist of behaviors, and that the drug ‘treatments’ have serious, life-threatening effects.”

While the number of psychiatrists worldwide declined 15% between 2005 and 2011, the number of psychiatrists in the U.S. rose 180% from 1975 to 2012. The global sales of antidepressants and antipsychotics rose 3% from 2006 to 2013; while the U.S. sales of these harmful drugs increased 5% from 2006 to 2012. U.S. sales of ADHD drugs rose 197% from 2006 to 2012. In 2011, 100,000 people in the U.S. were electro-shocked. In 2014, the U.S. Veterans Administration mental health budget was nearly $7 Billion.

It isn’t over. The total number of children and adults taking ADHD drugs rose from 6.7 million in 2006 to 10.2 million in 2013. The total number of Americans on all psychiatric drugs rose 19% from 2005 to 2013.

We’re effectively destroying an entire generation with harmful and addictive psychotropic drugs.

Contact your local, state and federal officials and representatives, and let them know what you think about this. Find Out! Fight Back!

Psychiatric Drug Users Experience Zombie-like State

Friday, May 22nd, 2015

Psychiatric Drug Users Experience Zombie-like State

A recent research study published in the International Journal of Mental Health Nursing [“Living with antipsychotic medication side-effects: The experience of Australian mental health consumers” DOI: 10.1111/inm.12110] reported that “Each participant reported between six and seven side-effects on average, which were often pronounced and had a major disruptive impact on their lives. Of these effects, the most commonly mentioned was sedation, which the participants described as leaving them in a ‘zombie’-like state.”

No surprise there. To date there have been 72 warnings against antipsychotics issued by regulators in eight countries.

Courts have determined that informed consent for people who receive prescriptions for psychotropic (mood-altering) drugs must include the doctor providing “information about…possible side effects and benefits, ways to treat side effects, and risks of other conditions…” as well as, “information about alternative treatments.” Yet very often, psychiatrists ignore these requirements. If you are taking these drugs, do not stop taking them based on what you read here. You could suffer serious withdrawal symptoms. You should seek the advice and help of a competent medical doctor or practitioner before trying to come off any psychiatric drug. This is very important.

There is no question that people do experience problems and upsets in life that may result in mental troubles, sometimes very serious. But to say that these are “medical diseases” or caused by a “chemical imbalance” that can only be treated with dangerous drugs is dishonest, harmful and often deadly.

What psychiatric drugs do instead is mask the real cause of problems, often denying you the opportunity to search for workable, effective solutions.

Imagine how it would be to believe that you could never overcome your personal obstacles, and come to lead a happy and rewarding life. Unfortunately, psychiatrists will most often tell you that your emotional problems or mental distress is incurable, and that you must take their drugs to “manage” it, often for the rest of your life.

But there is one thing they typically leave out—a concept called informed consent. This means that every patient has the right to be told the risks and benefits of the treatment the practitioner recommends; the risks and benefits of alternative treatments; and the risks and benefits of not treating the problem at all.

Psychiatrists routinely do not inform patients of nondrug treatments, nor do they conduct thorough medical examinations to ensure that a person’s problem does not stem from an untreated medical condition that is causing the mental disturbance.

Therefore, it is recommended that all patients first see a medical doctor (especially one who is familiar with nutritional needs), who should obtain and review a thorough medical history of the patient and conduct a complete physical exam, ruling out all the possible problems that might cause the person’s symptoms. According to top experts, the majority of people having mental problems are actually suffering from nonpsychiatric disease that is causing emotional stress.

There are far too many workable alternatives to psychiatric drugging to list them all here, though psychiatry insists there are no such options and fights to keep it that way. In the end, patients and physicians must urge their government representatives to endorse and support the funding of non-drug workable alternatives to dangerous drugs.

Feds Pay for Drug Fraud

Sunday, May 3rd, 2015

Feds Pay for Drug Fraud

92 Percent of Foster Care, Poor Kids Prescribed Antipsychotics Get Them for Unaccepted Uses
This Huffington Post article on April 30, 2015 exposes the fact that poor and foster care kids covered by Medicaid are being prescribed too many dangerous antipsychotic drugs at young ages for far too long — mostly without any medical justification at all.
“92 percent of all kids on Medicaid receiving antipsychotics don’t have any of the limited ‘medically accepted pediatric conditions’ supposedly justifying their use. These ‘accepted conditions’ include the authority to use antipsychotics even for autistic children as young as 5 for such dubious FDA-approved conditions as ‘irritability.'”

“Medicaid spends about $3.5 billion a year on antipsychotics for all ages, largely for unaccepted uses, with nearly 2 million kids prescribed them. Nationally, about 12 percent of all the nation’s 500,000 foster care children have received Medicaid-paid antipsychotics at some point, often because they haven’t been offered proven, “trauma-informed” intensive therapies, according to Kamala Allen, director of Child Health Quality for the Center for Health Care Strategies.”

“… it shouldn’t be surprising to learn that federal officials aren’t too keen on enforcing drugging protections for either nursing home residents (whose meds are usually paid by Medicare) or children on Medicaid. ‘The federal government has done absolutely nothing of significance to rein in overprescribing,’ says Bill Grimm, a senior counsel with the San Francisco-based National Center for Youth Law (NYCL) that has launched a PsychDrugs Action Campaign, now focused primarily on pending reform bills in the California legislature.”

“… just two months ago, a Philadelphia jury found that Janssen hid the breast-growth dangers of the drug Risperdal and owed $2.5 million to a 20-year-old autistic man who developed size 46 DD breasts as a teenager. ‘This was the first case related to the condition called gynecomastia that went to a jury, but thousands more lawsuits are lined up in Philadelphia, California, Missouri, and other locations,’ The Philadelphia Inquirer reported.”

“… what’s especially absurd … is the notion that federal officials think they’re not allowed to suggest to state Medicaid authorities to stop paying for the unaccepted uses of these and other drugs.”

“As Dr. David Rubin, the director of the Policy Lab at the Children’s Hospital of Philadelphia, told Mental Health Weekly, ‘The medications are being used particularly for disruptive behavior and to control the children.’ Yet nearly half of all kids getting the drugs aren’t getting other behavioral health services such as therapy, according to research by the Center for Health Care Strategies.”

“A shocking five-part series by The San Jose Mercury News, published last year, highlighted dangerous overprescribing that showed that thousands of foster care kids over a decade — nearly one in four foster teens — had been essentially ‘chemically restrained’ for their behavior with antipsychotics drugs that left many drooling, lethargic and obese.”

“Edward Opton, an attorney with the National Center for Youth Law’s PsychDrugs Action Campaign, has underscored why foster care kids are especially vulnerable. Even though they make up just 3 percent of all Medicaid children, they account for roughly 30 percent of all Medicaid behavioral spending for kids: ‘Foster children are a lucrative market for psychotropic drug sales. Unlike adults, they can’t say, “No, I won’t take any more of that drug,”‘ he wrote in a recent column on the Mad in America website.”

You should read the full Huffington Post article, it is most illuminating.

You should also contact your local, state and federal officials and ask them why this Medicaid fraud persists.

Consumer Reports Weighs in on Harmful Psych Drugs

Thursday, January 8th, 2015

Consumer Reports Weighs in on Harmful Psych Drugs

The Consumer Reports magazine of February 2015 has this to say about harmful psych drugs (page 8):

“Did You know that forms you sign when you or a relative enter a medical facility could signal your consent to take whatever drug is prescribed—even antipsychotics that could harm your health or be used to control behavior?

“It’s a nightmare that Marian Hollingsworth experienced firsthand. Her father, admitted to a California hospital for back pain, had a sudden mental decline that only worsened when he was transferred to a nursing home. Physical complications followed; he died less than two months later.

“Only after closely studying her father’s records did Hollingsworth learn that upon admission he had been prescribed the antipsychotics Risperdal and Haldol—along with opioids and tranquilizers—and that many of his symptoms seemed to be complications of those drugs.

“One signature, obtained days after admission, was all that the hospital—and later, the nursing home—needed to dispense the drugs and to add others. Outraged, Hollingsworth filed several complaints with her state health department and contacted the media. The result: A new state policy requiring nursing homes to verify informed consent for antipsychotic drugs used for patients who are being transferred from a hospital.

“Now Hollingsworth has joined Consumer Reports’ nationwide Safe Patient Project. Learn how to protect yourself and those you care for at SafePatientProject.org.”

Click here for more information about the side effects of psychiatric drugs.

Terrorism and Torture, Oh My!

Monday, December 29th, 2014

Terrorism and Torture, Oh My!

The United States government paid two military psychologists $80 million to develop torture tactics that were used against suspected terrorists in the wake of the September 11 attacks on the Pentagon and the World Trade Center.

In 2002, two former Air Force psychologists, James Mitchell and Bruce Jessen, became the masterminds of the CIA’s torture program, according to a new report released by the Senate Select Committee on Intelligence. The two men, identified in the report under the pseudonyms Grayson Swigert and Hammond Dunbar, devised and performed torture tactics–including waterboarding and mock burial on some of the CIA’s most significant detainees.

Aside from any human rights considerations about torture, notice the word “psychologists” in the above statement. There were also psychiatrists involved in these affairs, as well as the use of anti-psychotic drugs on detainees. Oh my, but haven’t we been saying all along that psychologists, psychiatrists, and psychotropic drugs are all a matter of human rights violations?

Psychiatry is a coercive practice. One can see this intuitively, as no one would voluntarily subject themselves to psychiatric treatment knowing its devastating consequences.

Numerous studies have verified that psychotropic drugs can take over the human mind against the will of the individual. Except in this case, they were possibly being used to manipulate potential terrorists into confessions rather than to create suicide bombers for terrorist organizations.

In 1955, a Soviet manual entitled Brainwashing: A Synthesis of the Russian Textbook on Psychopolitics was translated and distributed as a public warning by a New York professor. The manual was based on the methods of Ivan Pavlov, a Russian psychiatrist who developed “conditioned response” theories through experiments on dogs in the early 1900s. Pavlov’s work laid the groundwork for a fundamental psychiatric misconception that remains to this day: that, like dogs, men are basically programmable animals, influenced only by fear and reward. Pavlov’s experiments established the foundation for much of the inhuman brainwashing techniques used by the Soviet Union and China in the mid-twentieth century; and now used by the United States Central Intelligence Agency in their Detention and Interrogation Program.

The manual revealed, “The early Russian psychiatrists, pioneering this science of psychiatry, understood thoroughly that hypnosis is induced by acute fear. They discovered it could also be induced by shock of an emotional nature, and also by extreme privation, as well as by blows and drugs.”

In 1942, British Prime Minister Winston Churchill declared psychologists and psychiatrists “capable of doing an immense amount of harm” and that they should be restricted from involvement with armed forces. Apparently no one paid attention.

Now, opportunistic psychologists and psychiatrists push “post-traumatic stress disorder” on victims of war and other devastating events, making money at the expense of their vulnerability.

Citizens, human rights groups, and government officials should work together to ensure governments expose and abolish psychiatry’s hidden manipulation of society.

Click here for more information about Psychiatry and Terrorism.

Click here to download and read the Russian manual of Psychopolitics.

Former Top Industry Insider Reveals Big Pharma Secrets

Sunday, September 28th, 2014

Former Top Industry Insider Reveals Big Pharma Secrets

[From American Free Press Newspaper] “The former managing director of drug giant Eli Lilly and Company in Sweden continues to blow the whistle on the business practices of the pharmaceutical industry, scoring a major victory in announcing that his first book, Side Effects: Death. Confessions of a Pharma-Insider, will be turned into a full-length feature film.

“John Virapen, who began his career with ‘Big Pharma’ in 1968 as a salesman knocking on doctors’ doors, rose through the ranks to realize what he was pitching were not drugs, but death. Virapen was well aware early on that thousands had died or committed suicide by taking the drugs he was pushing. ‘I indirectly contributed to the death of … people, whose shadows now haunt me,’ he explained in his book.

[From Amazon.com] “I bribed a Swedish professor to enhance the registration of Prozac in Sweden.” -John Virapen

“Pharmaceutical companies want to keep people sick. They want to make others think that they are sick. And they do this for one reason: money. Did you know:
* Pharmaceutical companies invest more than $50,000 per physician each year to get them to prescribe their products?
* More than 75 percent of leading scientists in the field of medicine are ‘paid for’ by the pharmaceutical industry?
* Corruption prevailed in the approval and marketing of drugs in some cases?
* Illnesses are made up by the pharmaceutical industry and specifically marketed to enhance sales and market shares for the companies in question?
* Pharmaceutical companies increasingly target children?

“Side Effects: Death is the true story of corruption, bribery and fraud written by Dr. John Virapen, who has been called THE Big Pharma Insider. During his 35 years in the pharmaceutical industry internationally (most notably as general manager of Eli Lilly and Company in Sweden), Virapen was responsible for the marketing of several drugs, all of them with side effects. Now, Virapen is coming clean and telling all of the little secrets you were never intended to know!”

Now balance this valuable anecdotal account with more of the facts. Download and read these various CCHR booklets to get the truth about psychiatric drugs:

Psychiatric Drugs Create Violence and Suicide
The Link Between Psychiatric Drugs and Senseless Violence
The Truth About Ritalin Abuse
Antianxiety Drugs — the facts about the effects
Antidepressants — the facts about the effects
Antipsychotics — the facts about the effects
Psychostimulants — the facts about the effects
Mood Stabilizers — the facts about the effects