Archive for the ‘Big Muddy River Newsletter’ Category

The Skinny on the Skin Drug

Saturday, June 17th, 2017

We saw a TV commercial recently for the drug Otezla® (generic apremilast), from Celgene Corporation, which was approved by the FDA in 2014 for the treatment of symptoms of moderate to severe plaque psoriasis (skin lesions) and psoriatic arthritis.

Our attention was caught by the statement that Otezla is associated with an increase in adverse reactions of depression, suicidal thoughts, or suicidal behavior. We wondered why, since this drug is not used for psychiatric diagnoses, and psychiatric drugs all have such potential side effects.

The drug inhibits the enzyme phosphodiesterase 4 (PDE4), but the exact way in which it is supposed to work “isn’t completely understood”.

The estimated wholesale price is $22,500 for a year of treatment.

Digging deeper, we find that apremilast is an analog of thalidomide which was primarily prescribed as a psychotropic sedative or hypnotic and which was banned in 1961 for causing disastrous birth defects. Depression is also a common side effect of thalidomide.

In 1998 thalidomide was approved again by the FDA for use in multiple myeloma, a type of cancer, because it apparently had some kind of anti-inflammatory effect. It still is not known how it is supposed to work. Analogs of thalidomide were then developed to try to limit the side effects; an analog is a compound having a chemical structure similar to that of another one, but differing from it in respect of a certain component. Analogs are developed to see if they can improve upon the function of the base drug.

Well, apparently this one side effect — depression — did not get eliminated in the transformation from thalidomide to apremilast.

If someone has been given the full range of pros and cons for a drug or other treatment (i.e. full informed consent), with all applicable alternatives and even the alternative of no treatment, and then decides to take the drug or treatment, they made a fully informed decision. But we know that such informed consent is rarely, if ever, obtained prior to a psychiatrist or other doctor writing a prescription for a psychotropic drug. Click here to learn more about informed consent.

The Racism of Psychiatry

Sunday, June 11th, 2017

We generally think of racism as prejudice, discrimination, or antagonism directed against someone of a different race based on the belief that one’s own race is superior.

In Nazi Germany, this idea took on a slightly different slant, as the racial hygiene law of 1934 targeted individuals not necessarily of a different race, but against anyone considered abnormal; against any individual who might pass on what was considered abnormal to their descendents.

“Schizophrenia” is a strategic label as “Jew” was in Nazi Germany. If you want to exclude people from the social order, you must justify this to others, but especially to yourself. So you invent a justificatory rhetoric. That’s what the really nasty psychiatric words are all about: they are justificatory rhetoric, labelling a package “garbage”, it means “take it away! Get it out of my sight!” etc. That’s what the word “Jew” meant in Nazi Germany; it did not mean a person with a certain kind of religious belief. It meant “vermin!”, “gas him!” I am afraid that “schizophrenic” and “sociopathic personality” and many other psychiatric diagnostic terms mean exactly the same thing; they mean “human garbage,” “take him away!”, “get him out of my sight.” [Dr. Thomas Szasz, from “Interview with Thomas Szasz” in The New Physician, 1969]

Since 1939 enforced sterilization and systematic mass murder in psychiatric institutions was planned and organized in Berlin by psychiatrists, and was the blueprint for the subsequent murders in the gas chambers of extermination camps in occupied Poland starting in 1941. Psychiatrists used the Nazi regime to implement their plans for the elimination of those whom they declared to be untreatable. The killings survived the end of the Nazi regime and continued until 1949. Today these killings survive by psychiatric coercion and violence using involuntary commitment, enforced drugging with psychotropic drugs, lobotomy (brain mutilation), electric shock (electroconvulsive therapy or ECT), transcranial magnetic stimulation, and vagus nerve stimulation.

Among the almost unknown crimes of the 20th century by psychiatry is the mass murder by starvation of patients in psychiatric institutions. At least 25,000 German prisoners of psychiatry were starved to death in psychiatric institutions. [Hungersterben in der Psychiatrie 1914-1949, Heinz Faulstich]

Psychiatry, originally a medical practice treating dysfunction, abandoned that practice and abandoned therapeutic approaches, instead focusing on safeguarding society from abnormality by removing the abnormalities. The racism of psychiatry is now a racism against the abnormal, against the individual as the bearer of some deficiency that could be passed on to their descendents. Psychiatry is no longer interested in searching for cures; they are only interested in removing what they cannot cure.

Click here for more information about the real crisis in mental health care today.

Terrorized by Climate Change

Saturday, June 3rd, 2017

The psycho-pharmaceutical industry has jumped full-time onto the climate change bandwagon. You don’t even need to believe in climate change, since there is also the satirical “Climate Change Denial Disorder”.

Scholarly articles are being published claiming that climate change affects mental health, along with the typical cries to fund more research, prescribe more antidepressants, and prepare for the worst. Here is an example quote: “Increasing ambient temperatures is likely to increase rates of aggression and violent suicides, while prolonged droughts due to climate change can lead to more number of farmer suicides. … Increased frequency of disasters with climate change can lead to posttraumatic stress disorder, adjustment disorder, and depression.” [Mental health effects of climate change, Indian J Occup Environ Med. 2015 Jan-Apr; 19(1): 3–7.]

The DSM-5 does not lack for possible disorders that can be tied to some climate change disaster for which antidepressants can be prescribed. Here are a few:

“Disruptive mood dysregulation disorder”
“Other specified trauma- and stressor-related disorder”
“Unspecified trauma- and stressor-related disorder”
“Specific phobia, Natural environment”
“Posttraumatic stress disorder”
or any one of over thirty depression-related disorders.

It used to be called “Seasonal Affective Disorder” (SAD). Although this is no longer classified as a unique disorder, it can still be diagnosed as a “mood disorder with a seasonal pattern.” SAD is considered a subtype of major depression or bipolar disorder. An example of a SAD diagnosis might be “Major Depressive Disorder, Recurrent Episode, Moderate, With Seasonal Pattern”.

Here we have the “dangerous environment” in full bloom. A dangerous environment only persists if we fail to spread a safe environment across the world. What makes a dangerous environment? Confusion, conflict and upset.

The Merchants of Chaos who promote a dangerous environment make it seem as threatening as possible so that they can profit from it. How do you counter this? You spread the truth. Behind the truth comes the calm. You may still need technology to handle climate change, but you don’t need antidepressant drugs to do so.

The issue is not “is there or is there not climate change?” The issue is, get rid of the psychiatrists who are promoting and profiting from the confusion. Find Out! Fight Back!

What is Fake News?

Sunday, May 28th, 2017

It’s all the rage now to point to various media and call the news fake. Actually, various media themselves are pointing to other media and calling it fake news. Fortunately, the real news can be found with diligent observation. However, there is still a lot we can say about fake news.

The news cycle, once a stately 24 hours, has been reduced to mere seconds by social media. This makes it difficult at times to stay on top of it; and also making it vastly quicker to manipulate.

This massive out-flow of fake news can be called “disinformation,” which is composed of lies and half truths written to seem as the truth, and has been used by communists and psychiatrists for years to further their destructive efforts.

Another name for fake news is “Black Propaganda” (Black PR), a public relations tool used to destroy reputation or public belief in persons, groups or nations, or nullify political opposition. Black PR is a covert parade of derogatory lies, half truths and exaggerations disguised as the truth. It is a common tool of individuals and agencies who are seeking to destroy real or fancied enemies or to seek dominance in some field. The opposite of Black PR is what we normally call Public Relations which is defined as “making good works well known.”

The Black PR that is touted or spoken or published on any given day is always part of a larger cycle, part of a long term campaign. Time Line: the media’s printed or spoken publishing cycle; i.e. when particular news items are recorded and plotted over a long period of time. Watching the Time Line often gives one a heads up about the campaign.

In a hugely illiterate society people abound who have a sort of malicious glee about passing along slanderous rumors and gossip. The difficulties and cost of libel and slander suits and the abuse of press privileges lay anyone open to deliberate campaigns to destroy a reputation. Black propaganda and whispering campaigns make use of such a willingness to pass on and amplify falsehoods. Unless one knows how to handle such an attack, one is vulnerable and can be made quite miserable.

The basic situation comes from 1) a natural law that could be stated as, “Where there is no data available, people will invent it;” and 2) the spreading of false data in order to confuse or enturbulate others.

There are seven specific steps to counter Black PR and render it ineffective. Although these handlings are not part of this current discussion, we can say that the first step is to pump out the true facts.

The basic idea of weakening or corrupting a population has been in use since before the Persian attacks on Greece. A sufficiently degraded or weakened people are in effect demilitarized. The advent of fast mass communication via social media offers a unique opportunity to employ technology which can destroy a population totally as an effective nation, and fake news or Black PR are the weapons of choice. This kind of cultural destruction is now in full use to miseducate and subvert the entire society. And now, not only the psychiatric industry but also other groups are using it. But psychiatrists are masters at it. All anyone has to do to win an argument these days, thanks to psychiatry, is to say, “You’re crazy.” So if you believe the news, whether it is fake or real, if someone wants to put you down they’ll say, “You’re crazy.” Your only alternatives are to use your own judgment, or go crazy.

Chris Cornell, Another Failed Product of Psychiatric Drugs

Thursday, May 25th, 2017

Chris Cornell, a musician who committed suicide May 18, was apparently taking Ativan, a psychotropic drug which has known side effects of violence and suicide.

“…Cornell was a recovering addict with a prescription for the anti-anxiety medication Ativan and that he may have taken a bigger than recommended dosage.”

Ativan (generic lorazepam) is a highly addictive benzodiazepine anti-anxiety drug, and is known to cause violence and suicide either during use or after withdrawal. A typical dose is 1 to 3 milligrams orally 2 to 3 times per day, typically costing around $10 per 1 milligram tablet. It takes about two hours to feel the drug’s full effects, and it typically takes 10 to 20 hours for the drug to leave a person’s system.

Lorazepam as Ativan was first introduced in the U.S. by Wyeth Pharmaceuticals in 1977. Many of the so-called “beneficial effects” of the drug are considered “adverse effects” when they occur unwanted, such as its sedative effect, muscle relaxant effect, and amnesiac effect. These side effects are dose-dependent, meaning they get more pronounced the higher the dose. Other significant side effects are confusion, hostility, aggression, agitation, and suicidal behavior. Physical addiction characterized by withdrawal symptoms occurs in about one-third of individuals who are treated for longer than four weeks, although withdrawal symptoms can occur after taking therapeutic doses of Ativan for as little as one week. If treatment is continued longer than four to six months, tolerance develops and the dosage must be increased to get the same effects.

Signs of overdose can include confusion, hostility, aggression, suicidal behavior, drowsiness, hypnotic state, coma, cardiovascular depression, respiratory depression, and death. 810 drugs, and alcohol, are known to interact with lorazepam. Taking larger amounts of Ativan than prescribed, taking the drug more often than prescribed and taking the drug for longer than prescribed are considered abuse. Most commonly, overdoses occur when Ativan is taken in combination with alcohol or other drugs. Fifty thousand people went to the emergency room in 2011 due to lorazepam complications. Twenty-seven million prescriptions for lorazepam were written in 2011.

While this drug is used to treat anxiety, it doesn’t really do anything for the anxiety itself; it is primarily taken for its sedative side effect. The “side effects” are really the actual drug effects.

This great musician, and many other artists who committed suicide while taking psychiatric drugs, were offered “help” that was only betrayal. This psychiatric assault on artists of every genre has only increased, as the psychiatric industry peddles its array of deadly addictive psychotropic drugs for profit only. Click here for more information about psychiatry harming artists and ruining creativity.

Racism – How Psychiatry Creates and Perpetuates It

Monday, May 22nd, 2017

Definition of “racism” – prejudice, discrimination, or antagonism directed against someone of a different race based on the belief that one’s own race is superior.

In the United States, African-American and Hispanic children in predominantly white school districts are classified as “learning disabled” more often than Whites. This leads to millions of minority children being hooked onto prescribed mind-altering drugs to “treat” this fraudulent “mental disorder.”

African-Americans and Hispanics are also significantly over-represented in U.S. prisons. They are also more likely to receive electroshock treatment and to be subjected to physical and chemical restraints.

The rising incidents worldwide of anti-semitism and anti-Muslim sentiments are alarming, to say the least. Over the last decade an explosion of gratuitous violence has terrorized the world scene. Examination of these destructive phenomena reveals the influence of psychiatric treatment behind virtually all acts of terrorism.

Yes, we do have racism today. But why? Rather than struggle unsuccessfully with the answer to this question, there is a better question to ask. Who? The truth is we will not fully understand racism until we recognize that two largely unsuspected groups are actively and deceptively fostering racism throughout the world. The legacy of these groups includes such large-scale tragedies as the Nazi Holocaust, South Africa’s apartheid, violent acts of mass terrorism, and the widespread disabling of millions of schoolchildren with harmful, addictive drugs. These groups are psychiatry and psychology.

Psychiatry and psychology’s racist ideologies continue to light the fires of racism locally and internationally to this day.

In 1879, German psychologist Wilhelm Wundt of Leipzig University provided the ultimate scientific “proof” for eugenics and racism, by arrogantly declaring that as man’s soul could not be measured with scientific instruments, it did not exist. By this pronouncement, man suddenly became merely another animal. In other words, stripped of his soul by Wundt, man could be manipulated as easily as a dog could be trained to salivate at the sound of a bell.

In 1895, Alfred Ploetz, a Swiss-German psychiatrist, published his race inferiority theories in the book The Fitness of Our Race and the Protection of the Weak. Calling his philosophy Rassenhygiene [racial hygiene], Ploetz openly discouraged medical care for “the weak.” In later years, Hitler and his Nazi regime would use this to decide exactly who the “weak” were and what to do about them. Ploetz and his colleagues would be credited with providing the foundations of the Nazi racial state.

But Ploetz helped create much more than the Nazi regime and the Holocaust. His work laid the foundation for eugenics and racial suppression in countries around the world, including Australia, Canada, England, South Africa and the United States.

Margaret Sanger, the founder of Planned Parenthood of America and a eugenicist, contributed an equally repulsive plan. Her “cure” for racial inferiority was sterilization. Sanger planned to “exterminate the Negro population” by inducing several black ministers with “engaging personalities,” to preach that sterilization was a solution to poverty. She stated that reaching Blacks “through a religious appeal,” would be the “most successful educational approach.”

Through their history of invented racial “diseases,” arbitrary judgments on “better stock” and bogus scientific claims like “lower IQ” and “racial inferiority,” psychiatry and psychology have not only legitimized 19th, 20th and 21st Century racism, but also provided the reason for outright genocide.

Today in the United States, psychiatrists and psychologists boldly demand more research funds because African-Americans, Native American Indians and Hispanics are over-represented in the ranks of the “mentally ill.” Former clinical psychologist William Tutman warns, “To oppress a race, and then label its reaction as a ‘mental illness,’ is not only morally wrong, it is criminal and fraudulent.”

The psychiatric profession has a profit interest in ensuring that racist ideas continue to influence our society. Psychiatry represents a destructive instrument of social control. Whether through racial ideologies responsible for the Holocaust and ethnic cleansing, or through tactics used to manufacture terrorists, methods of psychiatric and psychological mind and behavior control continue to wreak misery on an international scale.

Click here to download more detailed information about how psychiatry creates racism.
Click here to download more detailed information about psychiatry’s role in terrorism.

Are You Schizophrenic?

Sunday, May 14th, 2017

The May, 2017 Scientific American magazine has a lengthy article on schizophrenia, bemoaning the lack of scientific progress trying to find out what it is and how to treat it. The article says, “Gene studies were supposed to reveal the disorder’s roots. That didn’t happen.”

Most people consider that psychiatry’s main function is to treat patients with severe, even life–threatening mental conditions. The most pronounced is that condition first called dementia praecox by German psychiatrist Emil Kraepelin in the late 1800’s, and labeled “schizophrenia” by Swiss psychiatrist Eugen Bleuler in 1908.

Robert Whitaker, author of Mad in America, says the patients that Kraepelin diagnosed with dementia praecox were actually suffering from a virus, encephalitis lethargica (brain inflammation causing lethargy) which was unknown to doctors at the time.

Psychiatry never revisited Kraepelin’s material to see that schizophrenia was simply an undiagnosed and untreated physical problem. “Schizophrenia was a concept too vital to the profession’s claim of medical legitimacy. The physical symptoms of the disease were quietly dropped. What remained, as the foremost distinguishing features, were the mental symptoms: hallucinations, delusions, and bizarre thoughts,” says Whitaker. Psychiatrists remain committed to calling “schizophrenia” a mental disease despite, after a century of research, the complete absence of objective proof that it exists as a physical brain abnormality.

Today, psychiatry clings tenaciously to antipsychotics as the treatment for “schizophrenia,” despite their proven risks and studies which show that when patients stop taking these drugs, they improve.

Professor Thomas Szasz stated that “schizophrenia is defined so vaguely that, in actuality, it is a term often applied to almost any kind of behavior of which the speaker disapproves.” Lily Tomlin once said, “Why is it that when we talk to God we’re said to be praying, but when God talks to us we’re schizophrenic?”

The DSM-5 lists nine entries for various forms of this so-called disorder:
— “Schizophrenia”
— “Schizophreniform disorder”
— “Other specified schizophrenia spectrum and other psychotic disorder”
— “Unspecified schizophrenia spectrum and other psychotic disorder”
— “Schizoaffective disorder”
— “Schizoaffective disorder, Bipolar type”
— “Schizoaffective disorder, Depressive type”
— “Schizoid personality disorder”
— “Schizotypal personality disorder”

There is abundant evidence that real physical illness, with real pathology, can seriously affect an individual’s mental state and behavior. Psychiatry completely ignores this weight of scientific evidence, preferring to assign all blame to supposed “chemical imbalances in the brain” or genetic factors that have never been proven to exist, and limits all practice to brutal treatments that have done nothing but permanently damage the brain and the individual.

Since psychiatrists do not really know what schizophrenia is, and cannot predict nor cure the symptoms associated with these diagnoses, they instead have pushed to “pre-treat” people with antipsychotic drugs who might exhibit such symptoms sometime in the future; meanwhile spending untold millions of dollars and years of effort searching for genetic targets to create new drugs — instead of conducting valid clinical tests for known medical issues and treating those. If we include well-known medical issues, infections, hormonal issues, nutritional issues, fevers, environmental pains, and drug reactions, there must be over a hundred ways to go crazy and be diagnosed as schizophrenic — all of these treatable by standard medical protocols.

Click here for more information on schizophrenia and to download booklets on various medical causes for these symptoms.

Path to Restoring Lives

Sunday, May 7th, 2017

Independence Center (IC) is a St. Louis nonprofit organization which “helps adults with mental illness access services to live and work in the community, independently and with dignity.” It is a mechanism to help end homelessness.

IC had revenue over $9.7 million in 2016, with expenses of $8.3 million (88% of which went to Program Services.) IC received a grant of $201,620 from the City of St. Louis Mental Health Board (MHB) in 2016. MHB is a special tax district which administers public tax revenues for support of vulnerable people in St. Louis City. The majority of individuals served (33%) were diagnosed with schizophrenia, followed by 24% diagnosed with depression, 19% with bipolar, 15% schizoaffective, and 9% some other diagnosis.

This is the Independence Center “Path to Restoring Lives”:
1. Independence Center social worker meets person discharging from hospital.
2. Schedules appointment at Midwest Psychiatry to start treatment plan and medication management.
3. Receives employment services at Independence Center’s Clubhouse and starts part-time job.
4. Collaborates with Independence Center social worker to locate safe, affordable housing.
5. Lives independently and with dignity in the community.

This Path is amazing on several levels.

IC counts success with their psychiatric programs as “Successfully managing symptoms,” as indicated by the percent of those receiving Medical Doctor or Advanced Practice Nurse services who did not report a psychiatric hospitalization or emergency department visit (94% and 89% respectively, out of 603 total unduplicated services provided.) In 2016, they counted 323 individuals enrolled in the Healthcare Home wellness program, 116 individuals who secured employment, and 78 individuals “Living independently and with dignity” as a result of their services.

If you spotted the second Path item above as the subject of our scrutiny, very well done. Let’s take a closer look at that item. Apparently according to Independence Center, the path to independence and dignity cannot occur without psychiatric drugs.

Because of the American Psychiatric Association’s Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM), psychiatrists have deceived millions into thinking that the best answer to life’s many routine problems and challenges lies with the “latest and greatest” psychiatric drug.

No one denies that people can have difficult problems in their lives, that at times they can be mentally unstable, subject to unreasonable depression, anxiety or panic. Mental health care is therefore both valid and necessary. However, the emphasis must be on workable mental healing methods that improve and strengthen individuals and thereby society by restoring people to personal strength, ability, competence, confidence, stability, responsibility and spiritual well–being. Psychiatric drugs and psychiatric treatments are not workable.

The larger problem is that the biological drug model (based on bogus mental disorders) is a disease marketing campaign which prevents governments from funding real medical solutions for people experiencing difficulty. There is a great deal of evidence that medical conditions can manifest as psychiatric symptoms, and that there are non–harmful medical treatments that do not receive government funding because the psychiatric/pharmaceutical industry spends billions of dollars on advertising and lobbying efforts to counter any medical modality that does not support the false biological drug model of mental disorders as a disease.

Because the general public has been so misled by the psychiatric and pharmaceutical industries about the actual dangers of psychotropic drugs, CCHR has created the psychiatric drug side effects search engine. Visit it to Get the Facts! Fight Back!

The Bogeyman is Coming to Get You

Monday, May 1st, 2017

There is a tradition, especially in film, of a person with mental illness representing the boogeyman — or the reverse case of a boogeyman frightening a person into a traumatic mental state. A boogeyman (also spelled bogeyman) is a folk creature in most cultures used by adults to frighten children into good behavior.

Have you noticed how the media consistently represents someone who goes on a killing spree as having some mental illness? It’s often the first question asked in the case of a mass murderer, i.e. “was he/she ever in a mental hospital?”

In point of fact, there is a relationship between crime and insanity, but that’s not exactly what we are going to discuss right now. We’re more interested in the rush to mental judgment by the media, and by the rush to involuntary commitment instead of a rush to justice and rehabilitation.

The Fresno shooter of Tuesday, April 18 gunned down 3 white men. During his arrest, Kori Ali Muhammad shouted “Allahu Akbar,” but the Fresno Police Chief said the shootings had nothing to do with terrorism.

The media quickly pointed out that in 2005, on the heels of another incident, the court determined that Muhammad suffered from a mental disease, and he was committed to a psychiatric facility for some months.

So there were at least two previous failures — the psychiatric treatment failed, and justice failed.

And they also got it wrong about the terrorism; but that’s not even the point, and just muddies up the real issue, which is that the person committed a crime, but instead he is labeled mentally ill. He’s become the boogeyman.

Criminal acts, terrorism or otherwise, are being reported as mental illness instead of what they really are — criminal acts or terrorism. Oh, don’t call it terrorism, it will upset the sensitive ears of those who prefer to call it mental illness.

No one even asked if he was taking, or withdrawing from, psychotropic drugs — which as we know carry a side effect of violence and suicide.

There will be a rush to involuntarily commit him and give him painful and addictive psychotropic drugs — instead of dealing with the actual criminal act and attempting to rehabilitate him.

By the way, insanity is not an illness, it is an injury. When drug treatments are piled on top of it, drugs known to cause violence and suicide, it becomes even harder to treat because the person is even more desperately injured and pain crazed.

Add on the various prescription drug monitoring programs in society, and we now have a rush to “pre-crime” — where a person is restrained, with involuntary commitment and more drugs, before any crime is committed. We’re moving toward that as a society, where so-called “treatment” occurs to prevent the possibility of a crime, instead of imposing justice after the fact of a crime. And guess who will be deciding when and whom to treat? The psychiatrists.

What are you going to do about it? Find Out! Fight Back!

Contrave Contrived to Confuse

Monday, April 24th, 2017

Contrave is marketed as a prescription weight-loss drug made from a combination of naltrexone HCL and bupropion HCL. Bupropion is an antidepressant, also marketed as Wellbutrin and Zyban for smoking cessation. Naltrexone is used to counteract alcohol and opioid addiction. (See our previous newsletter on Contrave.)

We’re not sure how this drug has anything to do with weight loss, except that the FDA allows it to be prescribed for that. We’re guessing it has something to do with calling obesity an addiction similar to smoking, and it’s another way to make money off of a drug by expanding its potential client base. The DSM-5 has a mental diagnosis called “Overweight or obesity.”

Naltrexone is not used extensively because the retention rate of patients is very low, so this use gives it additional life.

Bupropion increases the amount of the neurotransmitter dopamine in the brain. The most common side effects associated with bupropion are agitation, dry mouth, insomnia, headache, nausea, constipation, and tremor. It can also cause mania, hallucinations, seizures, suicidal thoughts and behavior, anxiety, panic attacks, trouble sleeping, irritability, hostile/angry feelings, impulsive actions, and severe restlessness. Additional adverse events of the Contrave combination are loss of consciousness and abuse of the drug.

Bupropion can also cause unusual weight loss or gain. We guess the doctor is betting on the former. The exact neurochemical effects of Contrave are not fully understood. What we fully understand is that the doctor is gambling that users will experience weight loss as a side effect of the drug.

Contrave has a boxed warning to alert health care professionals and patients to the increased risk of suicidal thoughts and behaviors associated with antidepressant drugs. The warning also notes that serious neuropsychiatric events have been reported in patients taking bupropion.

Contrave is a trademark of Orexigen Therapeutics, Inc. and is distributed by Takeda Pharmaceuticals. Shares of Orexigen (NASDAQ:OREX), collapsed 72% in 2015, based on its long-term cardiovascular-outcomes study for Contrave. The FDA chastised Orexigen for releasing immature data from a study where the analysis was incomplete, requiring Orexigen to run an additional long-term study.

Just for completeness, these are are inactive ingredients in Contrave: microcrystalline cellulose, hydroxypropyl cellulose, lactose anhydrous, L-cysteine hydrochloride, crospovidone, magnesium stearate, hypromellose, edetate disodium, lactose monohydrate, colloidal silicon dioxide, Opadry II Blue and FD&C Blue #2 aluminum lake. (With apologies to your dictionary, which may or may not help with some of these strange ingredients.)

The FDA approved Wellbutrin as an antidepressant in 1985 but because of the significant incidence of seizures at the originally recommended dose (400-600 mg), the drug was withdrawn in 1986. It was reintroduced in 1989 with a maximum dose of 450 mg per day.The current recommended dose for Contrave is no more than 4 tablets per day; each tablet has 90 mg bupropion HCL for a total of 360 mg per day. In Contrave clinical trials, 24% of subjects discontinued treatment because of an adverse event.

The cost of Contrave varies from about $55/month to over $200/month depending on dose, location, and insurance coverage.

We can contrive several less dangerous and cheaper alternatives for losing unwanted weight, without Contrave.