Posts Tagged ‘FDA’

Chantix is in Trouble Again

Wednesday, September 29th, 2021

We’ve been regularly warning about the dangers of Chantix since 2009, and now it’s causing trouble again.

The FDA warned in 2009 that Chantix (generic Varenicline), a psychiatric drug made by Pfizer, can have serious side effects, namely suicide.

Chantix is a benzodiazepine-based anti-anxiety drug promoted for smoking cessation. Benzodiazepines are prescribed to treat anxiety, insomnia or panic attacks, typically for a few weeks to six months; an estimated 50% of patients take them for two months or longer. These drugs have significant risks, because they are highly addictive and can have severe side effects, including heart problems, violence and suicide.

However, in 2016 the FDA removed the Black Box warning, after heavy lobbying from Pfizer claiming that additional data showed that the benefits of Chantix outweighed its adverse side effects (oh, and since its sales had significantly dropped.)

But the adverse side effects did not go away; only the Black Box warning went away.

Chantix Recall

Now (9/17/2021), Pfizer has issued a voluntary recall for all lots of Chantix 0.5mg and 1mg tablets due to the presence of unacceptable N-nitroso-varenicline levels, a suspected cancer-causing agent.

If you smoke, you are susceptible to cancer. If you take anti-smoking drugs, you are susceptible to cancer. But what’s the real danger here?

Chantix was developed to specifically affect nicotinic receptors in the brain, under the unproven theory that this would reduce nicotine craving and block the rewarding effects of smoking. As we’ve warned before, messing with neurotransmitters in the brain is playing Russian Roulette with your mind.

The psychiatric industry considers that smoking cessation therapies are their territory, however this drug masks the real cause of problems in life and debilitates the individual, thus denying one the opportunity for real recovery and hope for the future.

Recognize that the real problem is that psychiatrists fraudulently diagnose life’s problems, apparently such as smoking, as a “mental illness”, and stigmatize this unwanted behavior as a “disease.” Psychiatry’s stigmatizing labels, programs and treatments are harmful junk science; their diagnoses of “mental disorders” are a hoax – unscientific, fraudulent and harmful. All psychiatric treatments, not just psychiatric drugs, are dangerous.

Antipsychotic Antics

Wednesday, September 15th, 2021

Paliperidone, sold under the trade name Invega among others, is an atypical antipsychotic. Paliperidone is the primary active metabolite of the older antipsychotic risperidone, although its specific mechanism of action with respect to any psychiatric diagnosis is unknown. It blocks the action of dopamine and serotonin in the brain, which as we’ve previously observed is playing Russian Roulette with the brain.

On September 1, 2021 the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) approved a 6-month injection form of the long-acting atypical antipsychotic paliperidone palmitate (Invega Hafyera, manufactured by Janssen Pharmaceuticals) for the treatment of what is fraudulently diagnosed as schizophrenia in adults.

Adverse reactions, or side effects, can include upper respiratory tract infection, neuroleptic malignant syndrome, seizures, high blood sugar, diabetes, decreased blood pressure, fainting, falls, low white blood cell count, headache, tachycardia, somnolence, insomnia, sexual dysfunction, cough, dystonia, akathisia, muscle rigidity, parkinsonism, weight gain, anxiety, indigestion, constipation, and an increased risk of death in elderly people with dementia-related psychosis.

It can be addictive and have acute withdrawal symptoms (euphemistically called “discontinuation syndrome”), including rapid relapse, nausea, vomiting, loss of appetite, restlessness, increased sweating, trouble sleeping, a feeling of the world spinning, numbness, muscle pains, tardive dyskinesia, and psychosis.

The primary reason for prescribing a drug that has only two doses per year is to handle the situation where a patient stops taking their daily prescribed drugs because of their unpleasant side effects.

Psychiatric Fraud

Psychiatrists remain committed to calling “schizophrenia” a mental disorder despite, after a century of research, the complete absence of objective proof that it exists as a physical brain abnormality.

Psychiatry clings tenaciously to antipsychotics as the treatment for “schizophrenia,” despite their proven risks and studies which show that when patients stop taking these drugs, they improve.

The late Professor Thomas Szasz stated that “schizophrenia is defined so vaguely that, in actuality, it is a term often applied to almost any kind of behavior of which the speaker disapproves.”

These are normal people with medical, disciplinary, educational, or spiritual problems that can and must be resolved without recourse to drugs. Deceiving and drugging is not the practice of medicine. It is criminal.

Bear in mind that the drug “treatments” being prescribed are for “disorders” that are not physical illnesses—essentially, they are being prescribed for something that does not exist.

Any medical doctor who takes the time to conduct a thorough physical examination of a child or adult exhibiting signs of what a psychiatrist calls Schizophrenia can find undiagnosed, untreated physical conditions. Any person labeled with so-called Schizophrenia needs to receive a thorough physical examination by a competent medical—not psychiatric—doctor to first determine what underlying physical condition is causing the manifestation.

Any person falsely diagnosed as mentally disordered which results in treatment that harms them should file a complaint with the police and professional licensing bodies and have this investigated. They should seek legal advice about filing a civil suit against any offending psychiatrist and his or her hospital, associations and teaching institutions seeking compensation.

No one denies that people can have difficult problems in their lives, that at times they can be mentally unstable, subject to unreasonable depression, anxiety or panic. Mental health care is therefore both valid and necessary. However, the emphasis must be on workable mental healing methods that improve and strengthen individuals and thereby society by restoring people to personal strength, ability, competence, confidence, stability, responsibility and spiritual well–being. Psychiatric drugs and psychiatric treatments are not workable.

Something is Rotten in Canton

Monday, July 19th, 2021

Let’s Electroshock Children Who Misbehave

In March of 2020 the U.S. Food & Drug Administration (FDA) banned the Judge Rotenberg Educational Center in Canton, Massachusetts from using electric shock devices on their autistic and other mentally troubled children. In July of 2021 a federal appeals court removed the ban. The school is once again electro shocking about 60 students a day.

The school administers electric skin shocks in a form of “aversion therapy” for aggressive or self-injurious behavior. School staff trigger a shock to a child by using a remote control that zaps children with electric current when they misbehave. The school calls this a “medical device.” Since 1987 a state court must determine that such forced treatment is appropriate.

This electrical stimulation device delivers a powerful and painful electric shock to the wearer’s skin in an effort to punish. This school is the only facility in the country that uses coercive electric shock therapy to “treat” individuals who severely self-injure or are aggressive.

The FDA finally recognized in March 2020 (after 20 years) that these devices “present substantial psychological and physical risks and, in fact, can worsen underlying symptoms—while leading to heightened anxiety, depression and post-traumatic stress disorder.”

Unfortunately, the U.S. Court of Appeals for the District of Columbia overturned the FDA ban on July 6, 2021, stating that the ban was a regulation of the practice of medicine, which is outside the FDA’s area of authority.

The History of Abuse

In April 2016, the FDA first proposed banning electrical stimulation devices for self-injurious or aggressive behavior.

In 2018, the media reported that the Judge Rotenberg Educational Center would be allowed to continue administering electric shocks to its special needs students after a judge ruled the procedure conformed to the “accepted standard of care,” in spite of the practice being condemned by disability rights groups and the ACLU.

On December 3, 2018, the Inter-American Commission on Human Rights of The Organization of American States published a Precautionary Measure calling for the school to immediately cease electroshocking special needs children as a disciplinary measure.

In March 2020 the FDA finally determined that the devices presented a substantial and unreasonable risk to self-injurious and aggressive patients, justifying banning the devices for that purpose.

The Appeals Court

The appeals court examined the question, “Does the FDA have legal authority to ban an otherwise legal device from a particular use?”

The court concluded that current law prohibits the FDA from regulating the practice of medicine, and therefore it vacated the FDA’s rule banning electrical stimulation devices for self-injurious and aggressive behavior. There was one dissenting opinion; the Chief Judge found in favor of the FDA. [Read the full court opinion here.]

Of course, the lie in the argument is that electro shocking children is “practicing medicine.” In fact it is torture, not medicine.

The Case Against Torture

The United Nations Special Rapporteur on torture and other cruel, inhuman or degrading treatment or punishment has remarked that Electro Convulsive Treatment (ECT) amounts to torture. The World Health Organization (WHO) has also stated that there are no indications for the use of ECT on minors. The United Nations Convention on the Rights of Persons with Disabilities (CRPD) calls for a ban on “forced treatment.”

Granted that ECT is more severe than electric skin shocks, just have someone force you to stick your finger into an electric wall socket and tell us that this is not torture.

Disguising social control as medical treatment is a deceit which conceals an abuse.” This is a de facto abuse of power, as it seeks to limit and control the individual instead of helping the individual to get better and improve their conditions in life.

In the United Nations July 24, 2018 Annual Report of the High Commissioner “Mental health and human rights,” it states, “States should ensure that all health care and services, including all mental health care and services, are based on the free and informed consent of the individual concerned, and that legal provisions and policies permitting the use of coercion and forced interventions, including involuntary hospitalization and institutionalization, the use of restraints, psychosurgery, forced medication, and other forced measures aimed at correcting or fixing an actual or perceived impairment, including those allowing for consent or authorization by a third party, are repealed. States should reframe and recognize these practices as constituting torture or other cruel, inhuman or degrading treatment or punishment and as amounting to discrimination against users of mental health services, persons with mental health conditions and persons with psychosocial disabilities.”

The United Nations Universal Declaration of Human Rights, formally adopted on December 10, 1948 states, “No one shall be subjected to torture or to cruel, inhuman or degrading treatment or punishment.”

CCHR’s own Mental Health Declaration of Human Rights, written in 1969, states these rights, among others:
“The right to refuse any treatment the patient considers harmful.”
“No person shall be given psychiatric or psychological treatment against his or her will.”

Sign the petition to ban electroshock here.

Qelbree, The Newest ADHD Drug

Monday, June 21st, 2021

The U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) approved a new drug April 2, 2021 for treatment of the fraudulent “disease” Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) in children ages 6 to 17.

Like many other psychiatric drugs, this one also carries an FDA warning:”Qelbree may increase suicidal thoughts and actions in some children with ADHD, especially within the first few months of treatment or when the dose is changed.”

Qelbree (generic viloxazine hydrochloride) is a non-stimulant drug, although it is a Selective Norepinephrine Reuptake Inhibitor (sNRI), which means that it is really an antidepressant and is similar in operation to other ADHD drugs such as Strattera. The bottom line is that this class of drugs messes with neurotransmitters in the brain, and taking them is playing Russian Roulette with your brain.

Qelbree is an inhibitor of several Cytochrome P450 enzymes, which may intensify the drug’s side effects especially in combination with certain other drugs.

And again, like other similar psychiatric drugs, “The mechanism of action of viloxazine in the treatment of ADHD is unclear.

There is no valid ADHD clinical test for children. There is no valid ADHD clinical test for adults. The ADHD diagnosis does not identify a genuine biological or psychological disorder. The diagnosis is simply a list of behaviors that may appear disruptive or inappropriate, and is essentially just an opinion.

No one denies that people can have difficult problems in their lives, that at times they can be mentally unstable, subject to unreasonable depression, anxiety or panic. Mental health care is therefore both valid and necessary.
However, the emphasis must be on workable mental healing methods that improve and strengthen individuals and thereby society by restoring people to personal strength, ability, competence, confidence, stability, responsibility and spiritual well-being. Psychiatric drugs and psychiatric treatments are not workable.

ADHD Newborn

Tianeptine – An Alternative Worse Than Opioids

Monday, March 15th, 2021

Just when one might have thought that the U.S. was getting a handle on opioid addiction, another harmful and highly addictive opioid-like drug has appeared in widespread use.

The March 2021 issue of Consumer Reports has a comprehensive article about Tianeptine, an illegal drug linked to reports of harm, abuse and deaths.

Tianeptine acts in the brain as an opioid. The FDA says it is illegal and unsafe in the U.S., although it is approved as a prescription antidepressant in some European, Asian, and Latin American countries.

Reports indicate that tianeptine is even more addictive, with more severe withdrawal adverse reactions, than opioids and heroin.

Yet some proponents, possibly motivated by greed if not by malign intentions, are trying to get the FDA to approve it as a prescription drug for depression in the U.S.

Are You Depressed?

Psychiatry is heavily pushing false data about depression.

The fact is, the American Psychiatric Association, the American Medical Association and the National Institute of Mental Health admit that there are no medical tests to confirm mental disorders as a disease but do nothing to counter the false idea that these are biological/medical conditions when in fact, diagnosis is simply done by a checklist of behaviors.

People do experience symptoms of depression. But there are non-harmful, medical alternatives; addictive and harmful psychiatric drugs are not the solution.

Deja Poo - The feeling that you've heard this crap before.
deja poo

Erectile dysfunction drug mistakenly packaged with antidepressant

Monday, December 28th, 2020

Reference: “Erectile dysfunction drug packaged with antidepressant in ‘product mix-up’” [12/10/2020]

Pharmaceutical distributor AvKare issued a voluntary recall of 100 mg tablets of both sildenafil, an erectile disfunction medication [the active ingredient in Viagra], and trazodone, an antidepressant [such as Desyrel], after a mix-up led to some of the prescription drugs being packaged together.

We can think of some lewd suggestions of how this combination might work as an antidepressant, but our better judgment prevails.

Sildenafil is also prescribed for pulmonary arterial hypertension (high blood pressure in the lungs) because it relaxes blood vessels to increase blood flow.

If this goof isn’t bad enough, try putting your mind around the horrific side effects of trazodone, should anyone goof by actually taking it.

Trazodone is what’s known as a “newer antidepressant”. Some of its side effects are: flushing, chest pain, abnormal bleeding, ringing in the ears, dizzyness, fainting, changes in sexual ability, and painful erections.

Some of the side effects of sildenafil are: flushing, chest pain, nosebleeds, ringing in the ears, dizzyness, fainting, painful erections.

Gee, it might be difficult to tell which pill you’ve taken since both were in the same bottle and have the same side effects!

We make fun of it because we think it’s too good of a joke to let be; but the fact is, trazodone is not really a joking matter. Its side effects also include suicidal thoughts or behavior, violent behavior, psychotic episodes, deeper depression (which is ironic for an “antidepressant”), and many more serious adverse reactions.

Trazodone, like other such psychiatric drugs, raises the level of the neurotransmitter serotonin in the brain. Since it is not known exactly how this drug is supposed to work, taking it is playing Russian Roulette with your brain.

Trazodone is also routinely prescribed off-label for insomnia. Care must be used when stopping it, since it can have withdrawal symptoms. Psychiatrists euphemistically call this “discontinuation syndrome.”

We now know that Aaron Alexis, the 34-year-old man accused of killing 12 people in a gun rampage at the Washington Navy Yard September 16, 2013, was taking trazodone.

Adverse reactions should be reported to the FDA’s MedWatch Adverse Event Reporting program.

Recognize that the real problem is not even this awful drug, but that psychiatrists fraudulently diagnose life’s problems as an “illness”, and stigmatize unwanted behavior as “diseases.” Psychiatry’s stigmatizing labels, programs and treatments are harmful junk science; their diagnoses of “mental disorders” are a hoax – unscientific, fraudulent and harmful. All psychiatric treatments, not just psychiatric drugs, are dangerous.

It is vital that you, your family and friends watch the video documentary “Making A Killing – The Untold Story of Psychotropic Drugging“. Containing more than 175 interviews with lawyers, mental health experts, the families of psychiatric abuse victims and the survivors themselves, this riveting documentary rips the mask off psychotropic drugging and exposes a brutal but well-entrenched money-making machine. The facts are hard to believe, but fatal to ignore. Watch the video online.

Making A Killing

FDA Now Requires Strongest Warning for Anti-Anxiety Drugs

Monday, October 12th, 2020

The Food and Drug Administration (FDA) is now requiring the most prominent warning label for benzodiazepines, psychotropic drugs commonly prescribed for anxiety.

According to the FDA, more than 92 million prescriptions were written for benzodiazepines in 2019.

Benzodiazepines are prescribed to treat anxiety, insomnia or panic attacks, typically for a few weeks to six months; an estimated 50% of patients take them for two months or longer. Some of the more common brand names are Ativan, Chantix, Klonopin, Librium, Rohypnol, Valium, Versed, and Xanax.

These drugs have significant risks, because they are highly addictive and can have severe side effects, including violence and suicide. Addiction can occur after as little as 14 days of regular use, and withdrawal is often more difficult than withdrawal from heroin. Stopping benzodiazepines abruptly or reducing the dosage too quickly can result in acute withdrawal reactions, including life-threatening seizures.

There is also a “rebound effect” where the individual experiences even worse symptoms after stopping the drug than they had prior to taking the drug.

The FDA’s announcement means makers of benzodiazepines must now have a boxed warning label to include risks of abuse, misuse, addiction, physical dependence and withdrawal reactions.

Psychiatric Fraud and Abuse

Psychiatry’s fraudulent theory that a brain–based, chemical imbalance causes mental illness was invented to sell drugs. That these drugs are now known to be harmful and addictive is all too typical of psychiatric “treatments.”

But what about those who say psychotropic drugs really did make them feel better? Psychotropic drugs may temporarily suppress the pressure that an underlying physical problem could be causing but they do not correct or cure any disease or condition. Once the drug has worn off, the original problem remains, and the body is worse off from the drug’s nerve damage. As a solution or cure to life’s problems, psychotropic drugs do not work. Often real physical conditions can produce similar mental symptoms as the person is experiencing. The correct action on a seriously mentally disturbed person is a full, searching clinical examination by a competent medical doctor to discover and treat the true cause of the problem.

Report any adverse psychiatric drug effects to the FDA’s MedWatch program.

Play a Video Game for ADHD

Monday, August 10th, 2020

The FDA has approved a video game as a prescription “treatment” for ADHD.

The video game, called EndeavorRx from Akili Interactive Labs and approved on June 15, 2020, is prescription only and aimed at children between the ages of 8 and 12 with certain diagnoses of ADHD, specifically “children ages 8-12 years old with primarily inattentive or combined-type ADHD, who have a demonstrated attention issue.”

Of course, they recommend using harmful and addictive psychiatric drugs along with it.

We believe they approved it so that it can be marketed as an ADHD therapy, thus giving it a built-in patient base, and expanding upon the burgeoning digital entrepreneurship of the psychiatric industry.

Consistent with the FDA’s handling of psychiatric drugs, they list a series of possible side effects: frustration, headache, dizziness, emotional reaction and aggression. No surprises there.

Video Game Disorder

On the other hand, there has been a distinct effort in the psychiatric industry to make video-game-playing itself a mental illness.

The psychiatric industry has long attempted to make games the subject of mental disorders, so they can prescribe harmful psychotropic drugs and other fraudulent psychiatric treatments and make some money off of it. The International Classification of Diseases Revision 11 (ICD-11) has a category called “Gaming disorder”, in which a person is labeled mentally ill for persistently playing digital or video games.

What do you think? Can they have it both ways? Can they recommend a video game as a mental health treatment on the one hand, and say that playing video games is a mental disorder on the other hand? We think not. We think psychiatry is just demonstrating its basic purpose to harm and defraud.

ADHD is a Fraudulent Diagnosis

This is all not even to mention that ADHD is a fraudulent diagnosis. In 1987, “Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder” (ADHD) was literally voted into existence by a show of hands of American Psychiatric Association members and included in the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM). Within a year, 500,000 children in America alone were diagnosed with this.

ADHD actually represents the spontaneous behaviors of normal children. When these behaviors become age-inappropriate, excessive or disruptive, the potential causes are limitless, including: boredom, poor teaching, inconsistent discipline at home, reading difficulty, tiredness, street drugs, nutritional deficiency, toxic overload, and many kinds of underlying physical illness.

Perhaps playing a video game can help relieve some of these symptoms; but making it prescription only? We think that’s just a ploy to corner a market. How transparent can you get?

Since there are no valid clinical tests which can prove the existence of ADHD as a mental disorder, there are equally no clinical tests which can show if playing a video game cures it. The whole effort is a hoax.

No one denies that people can have difficult problems in their lives, that at times they can be mentally unstable, subject to unreasonable depression, anxiety or panic. Mental health care is therefore both valid and necessary. However, the emphasis must be on workable mental healing methods that improve and strengthen individuals and thereby society by restoring people to personal strength, ability, competence, confidence, stability, responsibility and spiritual well-being. Psychiatric drugs and other psychiatric treatments are not workable.

Find Out! Fight Back!

Here’s an Idea – Let’s Electroshock Children Who Misbehave

Sunday, March 15th, 2020
The FDA has finally, finally, decided to BAN the electric shock devices (ESDs) used at the Judge Rotenberg Educational Center in Canton, Massachusetts, a residential school for people with autism and other developmental or mental disabilities.

ESDs are devices that administer skin shocks in a form of “aversion therapy” for agitation and behavioral “issues.” School staff could trigger a shock to a child by using a remote control. This isn’t the electroconvulsive shock machine (currently in use) but a skin device machine that zapped children with electric current when they misbehaved.

The FDA has finally realized (after 20 years) that these devices “present substantial psychological and physical risks and, in fact, can worsen underlying symptoms—while leading to heightened anxiety, depression and post-traumatic stress disorder.”

According to William Maisel, director of the FDA device center’s Office of Product Evaluation and Quality, “Since ESDs were first marketed more than 20 years ago, we have gained a better understanding of the danger these devices present to public health.”

So we ask you, if it took the FDA 20 YEARS to figure out that torturing troubled kids with electric shocks to the skin was a bad idea, do we really want to leave it up to the FDA to figure out that the electroshock machine, still in use after all these decades, which administers up to 460 volts of electricity to the brain to produce a grand mal seizure, and which is currently being administered to children, the vulnerable and the elderly, is also an obviously bad idea?

[UPDATED July 6, 2021]
A federal appeals court overturned the FDA ban, stating that it was a regulation of the practice of medicine, which is outside the FDA’s area of authority. Approximately 20% of the center’s 300 patients are being treated with these harmful devices at any given time.

The court’s decision to remove the FDA ban on electrochocking these children, was based on the fraudulent claim that electroshocking children is a medical procedure and that the FDA has no authority to rule on medical issues.
The lie in this case is that electroshock is a “medical” procedure; it is not. It is a barbaric method of punishment and has no place in modern society.

Sign the petition to ban electroshock here.

The psychiatric Rush to Market

Monday, February 17th, 2020
Psychiatry has always given the impression that cures were the rule, rather than the exception. However, the psychiatric industry itself admits it has no capacity to cure.

Psychotropic drugging is big business — a high-income partnership between psychiatry and drug companies that has created an $80 billion industry in psychotropic drugs.

Psychiatrists tell us that the way to fix unwanted behavior is by altering brain chemistry with a pill. But unlike a mainstream medical drug like insulin, psychotropic medications have no measurable target illness to correct, and can upset the very delicate balance of chemical processes the body needs to run smoothly. Nevertheless, psychiatrists and drug companies have used these drugs to create a huge and lucrative market niche. And they’ve done this by naming more and more unwanted behaviors as “medical disorders” requiring psychiatric medication.

Thus there is a continuing need to find or create new patients to which to market new drugs, and a continuing rush to market for the latest drugs regardless of their harmful side effects.

The Risk of Side Effects

In a study of 68,730 individuals it was found that psychotropic drugs (SSRIs, mood stabilizers, antipsychotics, and benzodiazepines) are independently associated with a significantly increased risk of hip fractures and other major osteoporotic fractures.

Lead author Dr. James Bolton at the University of Manitoba says, “So physicians need to think about fracture risk as they are prescribing these medications, especially in patients who are vulnerable to fracture.”

Psychiatric Marketing Campaigns

Almost a third of drugs cleared by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration pose safety risks that are identified only after their approval. Thus we say “rush to market”; you can find hidden drug marketing campaigns practically everywhere.

Many of these marketing campaigns come from industry?funded front groups operated by psychiatrists but posing as compassionate patient support groups. Of all these programs, one of the most successful is the benevolent?sounding mental health screening campaign; it uses broad?based psychiatric screening questionnaires to diagnose common life situations such as sadness, nervousness and occasional loneliness.

Currently running is the “suicide prevention” campaign. But statistics show that there is no teenage suicide epidemic; and participants in these programs are more likely to consider suicide a solution to a problem after the screening program than before the program.

With a long and well-documented history of failure, psychiatrists and their drugs are under attack by government safety warnings, legislation, and tens of thousands of lawsuits.

Interestingly, underlying most psychiatric problems is an undiscovered and untreated physical illness. And when that is cured, so is the “mental problem.” But because of the powerful hold psychiatrists and drug companies exert over the rest of the medical field, this is rarely told to patients. To protect yourself and those you love, insist on a full and accurate consent: an accounting of all risks and benefits of the treatment recommended, of other treatments and of not doing anything at all.
Modern World